Read about the symptoms of hay fever, which include frequent sneezing; a blocked or runny nose; itchy, red or watery eyes; and a cough caused by postnasal drip.
Hay fever symptoms vary in severity and may be worse some years, depending on the weather conditions and pollen count.
The time of year your symptoms start will depend on the types of pollen you're allergic to.
The symptoms of hay fever include:
- frequent sneezing
- runny or blocked nose
- itchy, red or watery eyes (allergic conjunctivitis)
- an itchy throat, mouth, nose and ears
- cough, caused by postnasal drip (mucus dripping down the throat from the back of the nose)
Less commonly, you may also experience:
- the loss of your sense of smell (anosmia)
- facial pain (caused by blocked sinuses)
- tiredness and fatigue
Even though your hay fever symptoms may be mild, they can interfere with your sleep and your daily activities at school or work.
Hay fever and asthma
If you have asthma, your asthma symptoms may get worse when you have hay fever. Sometimes, the symptoms of asthma only occur when you have hay fever.
These symptoms include:
Hay fever symptoms are likely to be worse if the pollen count is high. The pollen count is the number of grains of pollen in one cubic metre of air.
Air samples are collected in traps set on buildings two or three storeys high. Taking samples from this height gives a better indication of the pollen in the air. Traps on the ground would only collect pollen from nearby trees and plants.
The air is sucked into the trap and the grains of pollen are collected on either sticky tape or microscope slides (glass plates). The pollen is then counted. Samples are normally taken every two hours, and usually the results are averaged over a 24-hour period.
The pollen forecast is usually given as:
- low – less than 30 grains of pollen in every cubic metre of air
- moderate – 30 to 49 grains of pollen in every cubic metre of air
- high – 50 to 149 grains of pollen in every cubic metre of air
- very high – 150 or more grains of pollen in every cubic metre of air
Hay fever symptoms often begin when the pollen count is over 50. The pollen count is usually given as part of the weather forecast during the spring and summer months.
When to seek medical advice
Most cases of hay fever can be treated using over-the-counter medication. Your local pharmacist can advise you on treatments for you or your children.
You usually only need to see your GP if:
- you can't control your symptoms with over-the-counter medications, or you have troublesome side effects caused by the medication
- you're experiencing persistent complications of hay fever, such as worsening of asthma or repeated episodes of sinusitis
- the pattern of your symptoms is unusual, such as occurring during the winter or only at your workplace (it's likely that another substance other than pollen is responsible, and further testing will be needed to confirm this)
- An allergen is a substance, such as pollen, that reacts with the body's immune system and causes an allergic reaction.
- Allergy is the term used to describe an adverse (bad) reaction that the body has to a particular substance.
- Pain is an unpleasant physical or emotional feeling that your body produces as a warning sign that it has been damaged.
- Sneezing is an involuntary expulsion of air and bacteria from the nose and mouth.
- Wheezing is the whistling sound made during breathing when the airways are blocked or compressed.